Publications — RA

There is active research around YKL-40 as a biomarker in a variety of disease states.  Recent studies have linked elevated YKL-40 levels to a variety of aggressive and invasive cancers, asthma and cirrhosis.  A list of publications can be found in the links at the right.

  1. M. Abe, M. Takahashi, K. Naitou, K. Ohmura, and A. Nagano. Investigation of generalized osteoarthritis by combining X-ray grading of the knee, spine and hand using biochemical markers for arthritis in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 22 (6):425-431, 2003.
  2. B. H. Arjmandi, D. A. Khalil, E. A. Lucas, B. J. Smith, N. Sinichi, S. B. Hodges, S. Juma, M. E. Munson, M. E. Payton, R. D. Tivis, and A. Svanborg. Soy protein may alleviate osteoarthritis symptoms. Phytomedicine. 11 (7-8):567-575, 2004.
  3. D. Baeten, A. M. Boots, P. G. Steenbakkers, D. Elewaut, E. Bos, G. F. Verheijden, G. Berheijden, A. M. Miltenburg, A. W. Rijnders, E. M. Veys, and F. de Keyser. Human cartilage gp-39+,CD16+ monocytes in peripheral blood and synovium: correlation with joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 43 (6):1233-1243, 2000.
  4. B. Combe, M. Dougados, P. Goupille, A. Cantagrel, J. F. Eliaou, J. Sibilia, O. Meyer, J. Sany, J. P. Daures, and A. Dubois. Prognostic factors for radiographic damage in early rheumatoid arthritis: a multiparameter prospective study. Arthritis Rheum 44 (8):1736-1743, 2001.
  5. T. Conrozier, M. C. Carlier, P. Mathieu, F. Colson, A. L. Debard, S. Richard, H. Favret, J. Bienvenu, and E. Vignon. Serum levels of YKL-40 and C reactive protein in patients with hip osteoarthritis and healthy subjects: a cross sectional study. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 59 (10):828-831, 2000.
  6. A. P. Cope, S. D. Patel, F. Hall, M. Congia, H. A. Hubers, G. F. Verheijden, A. M. Boots, R. Menon, M. Trucco, A. W. Rijnders, and G. Sonderstrup. T cell responses to a human cartilage autoantigen in the context of rheumatoid arthritis-associated and nonassociated HLA-DR4 alleles. Arthritis Rheum. 42 (7):1497-1507, 1999.
  7. M. D'Amore, G. Germinario, S. D'Amore, and P. Scagliusi. [Biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL 40 in ankylosing spondylitis. Relation to disease activity]. Minerva Med 91 (3-4):59-68, 2000.
  8. Ceuninck F. De, P. Pastoureau, S. Agnellet, J. Bonnet, and P. M. Vanhoutte. Development of an enzyme-linked immunoassay for the quantification of YKL-40 (cartilage gp-39) in guinea pig serum using hen egg yolk antibodies. J Immunol Methods 252 (1-2):153-161, 2001.
  9. B. E. Hakala, C. White, and A. D. Recklies. Human cartilage gp-39, a major secretory product of articular chondrocytes and synovial cells, is a mammalian member of a chitinase protein family. J.Biol.Chem. 268:25803-25810, 1993.
  10. S. Harvey, M. Weisman, J. O'Dell, T. Scott, M. Krusemeier, J. Visor, and C. Swindlehurst. Chondrex: new marker of joint disease. Clin.Chem. 44:509-516, 1998.
  11. S. Harvey, J. Whaley, and K. Eberhardt. The relationship between serum levels of YKL-40 and disease progression in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Scand.J Rheumatol. 29 (6):391-393, 2000.
  12. A. J. Janckila. Significance of Serum TRACP in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Anonymous. Anonymous. J.Bone Miner.Res. 23:1287-1295, 2008.
  13. J. S. Johansen, H. S. Jensen, and P. A. Price. A new biochemical marker for joint injury: analysis of YKL-40 in serum and synovial fluid. Br.J.Rheumatol. 32:949-955, 1993.
  14. J. S. Johansen, M. Hansen, M. Stoltenberg, J. Hvolris, A. Florescu, P. A. Price, and K. Hørslev-Petersen. Does serum YKL-40 reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum. 38(9, Suppl.):S217, 1995. (Abstract)
  15. J. S. Johansen, M. Stoltenberg, M. Hansen, T. M. Hansen, P. A. Price, and P. C. G¦tzche. Serum YKL-40 reflects disease relapse after withdrawal of SAARD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 39:S155, 1996. (Abstract)
  16. J. S. Johansen, M. Hansen, M. Stoltenberg, A. Florescu, P. A. Price, K. Hørslev-Petersen, and I. Lorenzen. Serum YKL-40 reflects disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 40(Suppl):S149, 1997. (Abstract)
  17. J. S. Johansen, M. Stoltenberg, M. Hansen, A. Florescu, K. Horslev-Petersen, I. Lorenzen, and P. A. Price. Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity. Rheumatology 38 (7):618-626, 1999.
  18. J. S. Johansen, J. R. Kirwan, P. A. Price, and M. Sharif. Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: relation to joint destruction. Scand.J Rheumatol. 30 (5):297-304, 2001.
  19. R. B. Kirkpatrick, J. G. Emery, J. R. Connor, R. Dodds, P. G. Lysko, and M. Rosenberg. Induction and expression of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 in rheumatoid inflammatory and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Exp.Cell Res. 237 (1):46-54, 1997.
  20. L. S. Knudsen, M. Ostergaard, B. Baslund, E. Narvestad, J. Petersen, H. J. Nielsen, B. J. Ejbjerg, M. Szkudlarek, and J. S. Johansen. Plasma IL-6, plasma VEGF, and serum YKL-40: relationship with disease activity and radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab and methotrexate. Scand.J Rheumatol. 35 (6):489-491, 2006.
  21. L. S. Knudsen, M. Klarlund, H. Skjodt, T. Jensen, M. Ostergaard, K. E. Jensen, M. S. Hansen, M. L. Hetland, H. J. Nielsen, and J. S. Johansen. Biomarkers of inflammation in patients with unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis. Relationship to disease activity and radiographic outcome. J Rheumatol. 35 (7):1277-1287, 2008.
  22. J. Kzhyshkowska. Human Chitinases and Chitinase-Like Proteins as Indicators for Inflammation and Cancer. Anonymous. Anonymous. Biomarker Insights 2:128-146, 2007.
  23. Montagna G. La, S. D'Angelo, and G. Valentini. Cross-sectional evaluation of YKL-40 serum concentrations in patients with systemic sclerosis. Relationship with clinical and serological aspects of disease. J Rheumatol. 30 (10):2147-2151, 2003.
  24. W. P. Maksymowych, A. R. Poole, L. Hiebert, A. Webb, M. Ionescu, T. Lobanok, L. King, and J. C. Davis, Jr. Etanercept exerts beneficial effects on articular cartilage biomarkers of degradation and turnover in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 32 (10):1911-1917, 2005.
  25. W. P. Maksymowych, R. Landewe, B. Conner-Spady, M. Dougados, H. Mielants, Tempel H. van der, A. R. Poole, N. Wang, and Heijde D. van der. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 3 is an independent predictor of structural damage progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 56 (6):1846-1853, 2007.
  26. T. Matsumoto and T. Tsurumoto. Serum YKL-40 levels in rheumatoid arthritis: correlations between clinical and laborarory parameters. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 19 (6):655-660, 2001.
  27. M. Morgante, Munno O. Di, and D. Morgante. [YKL 40: marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis?]. Minerva Med 90 (11-12):437-441, 1999.
  28. M. Morgante, M. R. Metelli, and D. Morgante. [Observations on the increased serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis]. Minerva Med 92 (3):151-153, 2001.
  29. H. J. Møller. Connective tissue markers of rheumatoid arthritis. Scand.J.Clin.Lab.Invest. 58:269-278, 1998.
  30. R. Peltomaa, L. Paimela, S. Harvey, T. Helve, and M. Leirisalo-Repo. Increased level of YKL-40 in sera from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a new marker for disease activity. Rheumatol.Int. 20 (5):192-196, 2001.
  31. M. Petersson, E. Bucht, B. Granberg, and A. Stark. Effects of arginine-vasopressin and parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-34) on cell proliferation and production of YKL-40 in cultured chondrocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 14 (7):652-659, 2006.
  32. T. Sekine, K. Masuko-Hongo, T. Matsui, H. Asahara, M. Takigawa, K. Nishioka, and T. Kato. Recognition of YKL-39, a human cartilage related protein, as a target antigen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 60 (1):49-54, 2001.
  33. E. Steck, S. Breit, S. J. Breusch, M. Axt, and W. Richter. Enhanced expression of the human chitinase 3-like 2 gene (YKL-39) but not chitinase 3-like 1 gene (YKL-40) in osteoarthritic cartilage. Biochem Biophys.Res Commun. 299 (1):109-115, 2002.
  34. P. Steenbakkers, D. Baeten, J. Rowe, E Rovers, E Veys, A Rijnders, J Meijerink, F. de Keyser, and A. M. Boots. Localization of MHC Class II/Human Cartilage Glycoprotein-39 Complexes in Synovia of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Complex-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies. Anonymous. Anonymous. Journal of Immunology 170:5719-5727, 2003.
  35. P. G. Steenbakkers, A. M. Boots, and A. W. Rijnders. T-cell anergy induced by clonotype-specific antibodies: modulation of an autoreactive human T-cell clone in vitro. Immunology 96 (4):586-594, 1999.
  36. E. Sumer. Application of biomarkers in the clinical development of new drugs for chondroprotection in destructive joint diseases: a review. Anonymous. Anonymous. Biomarkers 11:485-506, 2006.
  37. S. W. Syversen, G. L. Goll, Heijde D. van der, R. Landewe, P. I. Gaarder, S. Odegard, E. A. Haavardsholm, and T. K. Kvien. Cartilage and Bone Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Prediction of 10-year Radiographic Progression. J Rheumatol. 36 (2):266-272, 2009.
  38. M. Takahashi, K. Naito, M. Abe, T. Sawada, and A. Nagano. Relationship between radiographic grading of osteoarthritis and the biochemical markers for arthritis in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 6 (3):R208-R212, 2004.
  39. E Tsark. Differential MHC Class II-Mediated Presentation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Autoantigens by Human Dendritic Cells and Macrophages. Anonymous. Anonymous. Journal of Immunology 169:6625-6633, 2002.
  40. G. F. M. Verheijden, A. W. M. Rijnders, E. Bos, C. J. J. Coenen-de Roo, C. J. van Staveren, A. M. M. Miltenburg, J. H. Meijerink, D. Elewaut, F. de Keyser, E. Veys, and A. M. H. Boots. Human cartilage glycoprotein-39 as a candidate autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 40:1115-1125, 1997.
  41. B. Volck, J. S. Johansen, M. Stoltenberg, M. Æstergaard, P. A. Price, and I. Lorenzen. Serum YKL-40 reflects pharmacological induced reduction of synovial inflammation of the knee joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 39:S155, 1996. (Abstract)
  42. B. Volck, J. S. Johansen, M. Æstergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. L¦vgreen, P. A. Price, C. Garbarsch, S. Sonne-Holm, and I. Lorenzen. Serum and synovial fluid levels of YKL-40 in relation to synovial inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 40(Suppl.):S248, 1997. (Abstract)
  43. B. Volck, P. A. Price, J. S. Johansen, O. H. Sqrensen, T. L. Benfield, H. J. Nielsen, J. Calafat, and N. Borregaard. YKL-40, a mammalian member of the chitinase family, is a matrix protein of specific granules in human neutrophils. Proc.Assoc.Am.Physicians 110:351-360, 1998.
  44. B. Volck, M. Æstergaard, J. S. Johansen, C. Garbarsch, and P. A. Price. The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage. Scand.J.Rheumatol. 28:171-179, 1999.
  45. K. Vos, P. Steenbakkers, A. M. Miltenburg, E. Bos, M. W. van Den Heuvel, R. A. van Hogezand, R. R. de Vries, F. C. Breedveld, and A. M. Boots. Raised human cartilage glycoprotein-39 plasma levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Ann Rheum Dis 59 (7):544-548, 2000.
  46. D. A. Wolvers, C. J. Coenen-de Roo, R. E. Mebius, M. J. van der Cammen, F. Tirion, A. M. Miltenburg, and G. Kraal. Intranasally induced immunological tolerance is determined by characteristics of the draining lymph nodes: studies with OVA and human cartilage gp-39. J.Immunol. 162 (4):1994-1998, 1999.
  47. Syversen SW, Goll GL, van der HD, Landewe R, Gaarder PI, Odegard S, Haavardsholm EA, Kvien TK. Cartilage and bone biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Prediction of 10-year radiographic progression. J Rheumatol 2009; 36:266-272


A-A+Font size    Print E-mail



YKL-40 E-mail Updates

Periodically we send out e-mail updates about YKL-40. If you would like to receive these, please enter your e-mail address on the right.